There is an increasing interest in the role of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) in cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It has recently been reported that a common G→T point mutation in the A-subunit gene of FXIII, which codes for a valine (val) to leucine (leu) change (FXIIIVal34Leu), is protective against thrombotic diseases but seems to increase the risk of intracerebral bleeding. We developed a colorimetric incorporation assay for detection of FXIII activity based on incorporation of 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine (BAPA) into fibrin or fibrinogen. With this new assay, we studied the effects of FXIIIVal34Leu mutation, plasma fibrinogen concentration and congenital FXIII deficiency on FXIII activity. There are no data available about the ability of different FXIII assays to detect altered activity in FXIIIVal34Leu genotypes. We therefore compared our results determined by the incorporation method with a commonly used photometric method based on ammonia release after cross-linking of glycine-ethylester to a specific glutamine containing peptide substrate. We also determined FXIII A-subunit antigen (Ag) levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The FXIIIVal34Leu genotype could not be detected either by the photometric method nor by the FXIII A-subunit ELISA. The incorporation assay showed an increased specific FXIII activity in subjects possessing the leu allele. The photometric assay and ELISA gave similar results independent from genotype. In patients with congenital FXIII deficiency before and after substitution, however, ELISA and the incorporation assay gave similar results, whereas the photometric assay showed consistently higher values. Our results show that the incorporation assay, not the photometric assay based on ammonia release, can be used for detection of elevated activity in subjects with FXIIIVal34Leu. Because of specificity and over a wide range sensitivity, the assay can also be used for determination of FXIII deficiency and monitoring of FXIII substitution therapy.
M. Wilmer, K. Rudin, H.-J. Kolde, B. Poetzsch, W. Lenz, G. Moessmer, E. Meili, R. Egbring, P. Gempeler-Messina, M. Gempeler, S. Bastian, H.-P. Kohler (2001): Evaluation of a Sensitive Colorimetric FXIII Incorporation Assay. Effects of FXIII Val34Leu, Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration and Congenital FXIII Deficiency, Thrombosis Research , Volume 102 , Issue 1 , 81 - 91